Hapkido is a dynamic and eclectic korean martial art. It is a form of self-defense that employs joint locks, techniques of other martial arts, as well as kicks, punches, and other striking attacks. There is also the use of traditional weapons, including a sword, rope, nunchaku, cane, short stick, and staff (gun) which vary in emphasis depending on the particular tradition examined.

Hapkido contains both long and close range fighting techniques, utilizing jumping kicks and percussive hand strikes at longer ranges and pressure pointstrikes, joint locks, or throws at closer fighting distances. Hapkido emphasizes circular motion, non-resisting movements, and control of the opponent. Practitioners seek to gain advantage through footwork and body positioning to employ leverage, avoiding the use of strength against strength.

The art copied from Daito-ryu Aiki-jijutsu or a closely related jujutsu system taught by Choi Yong-Sool who returned to Korea after World War II, having lived in Japan for 30 years. This system was later combined with kicking and striking techniques of indigenous and contemporary arts such as taekkyeon and tang soo do. Its history is obscured by the historical animosity between the Korean and Japanese people following the Second World War. i. Hapkido is rendered in the native Korean writing system knownhangul, the script used most widely in modern Korea. The character hap means “coordinated” or “joining”; ki describes internal energy, spirit, strength, or power; and do means “way” or “art”, yielding a literal translation of “joining-energy-way”. It is most often translated as “the way of coordinating energy”, “the way of coordinated power” or “the way of harmony”.

Although aikido and hapkido are believed by many to share a common history, they remain separate and distinct from one another. They differ significantly in philosophy, range of responses and manner of executing techniques. The fact that they share the same original Chinese characters, despite being pronounced “ai” in Japanese and “hap” in Korean, has proved problematic in promoting the art internationally as a discipline with its own set of unique characteristics differing from those of the Japanese art.

Hapkido history and major hapkido figures from Korea

The birth of modern hapkido can be traced to the efforts of a group of Korean nationals in the post Japanese colonial period of Korea, Choi Yong-Sool (1899–1986) and his most prominent students; Seo Bok-Seob, the first student of the art;Ji Han-Jae (born 1936), one of the earliest promoters of the art; Kim Moo-Hong, a major innovator; Myung Jae-Nam, a connector between the art of hapkido and aikido, Myung Kwang-Sik the historian and ambassador, all of whom were direct students of Choi or of his immediate students.

Choi Yong-Sool

Choi Yong-Sool’s training in martial arts is a subject of contention. It is known that Choi was sent to Japan as a young boy and returned to Korea with techniques characteristic of Daito-ryu Aiki-jijutsu , a forerunner of aikido. The next portion of the story is quite controversial in Daito-ryu circles but is claimed by many contemporary hapkido-ists and is attributed to Choi in an interview (released posthumously) that took place during a trip Choi made to the United States in 1980 to visit his second direct lineage successor Chinil Chang in New York City.

In the interview with second direct lineage Doju Chinil Chang, Choi claims to have been adopted by Takeda Sokaku when he was 11 years old and was given the Japanese name, Yoshida Asao. He claims to have been taken to Takeda’s home and dojo in Akita on Shin Shu mountain where he lived and trained with the master for 30 years. The interview also asserts that he travelled with him as a teaching assistant, that he was employed to catch war deserters and that he was the only student to have a complete understanding of the system taught by Takeda.

This is contradicted by other claims asserting that Choi was simply a worker in the home of Takeda. In fact, the meticulous enrolment and fee records of Tokimune Takeda, Takeda Sokaku’s eldest son and Daito-ryu’s successor, do not seem to include Choi’s name among them. Therefore, except for claims made by Choi himself, there is little evidence that Choi was the adopted son of Takeda Sokaku, or that he ever formally studied Daito-ryu under the founder of the art.

Quote “ On another subject, it is true that a Korean named “Choi” who founded hapkido studied aikido or Daito-ryu I don’t know what art it was but I understand that there was a young Korean of about 17 or 18 who participated in a seminar of Sokaku Takeda Sensei. It seems that he studied the art together with my father and would refer to him as his “senior”. If that’s the case the art must have been Daito-ryu. I’ve heard that this man who studied Daito-ryu had some contact with my father after that. Then he returned to Korea and began teaching Daito-ryu on a modest scale. The art gradually became popular and many Koreans trained with him. Since aikido became popular in Japan he called his art hapkido [written in Korean with the same characters as aikido]. Then the art split into many schools before anyone realized it. This is what my father told me. I once received a letter from this teacher after my father’s death.[9] ”

Some argue that Choi Yong-Sool’s potential omission from the records, and the ensuing debate about hapkido’s origins, may be due to tensions between Koreans and Japanese, partly as a result of the Japanese occupation of Korea. At the height of dispute, it is claimed by hapkido practitioners that Koreans were excluded from listing, though this is contradicted by Takeda’s records which contain other Korean names. While some commentators claim hapkido has a Japanese lineage, others state that its origins lay with indigenous Korean martial arts.

Choi Yong-Sool’s first student, and the man whom some claim helped him develop the art of hapkido was Seo Bok-Seob, a Korean judo black belt when they met. Some of Choi’s other respected senior students are: Chinil Chang, Ji Han-Jae, Kim Moo-Hong, and arguably Seo In-Hyuk and Lee Joo-Bang who went on to form the arts of Kuk Sool Won and modern Hwa Rang Do respectively (though some argue that their training stems from time spent training under Kim Moo-Hong).

Seo Bok-Seob

Choi’s first student and the first person known to have opened up a dojang under Choi was Seo Bok-Seob (also spelled Suh Bok-Sup)

In 1948, when Seo Bok-sub was still in his early 20s, he had already earned his black belt in judo and was a graduate of Korea University. After watching Choi Yong-Sool successfully defend himself against a group of men when an argument erupted in the yard of the Seo Brewery Company, Seo who was son of the chairman of the company, invited Choi to begin teaching martial arts to him and some workers at the distillery where he had prepared a dojang.[10]

In 1951, Seo opened up the first proper dojang called the “Daehan Hapki Yu Kwon Sool Dojang. The first symbol, designed by Seo, which was used to denote the art was the inverted arrowhead design featured in both the modern incarnation of the KiDo Association and by Myung Kwang-Sik’s World Hapkido Federation. Choi Yong-Sool was also employed during this time as a bodyguard to Seo’s father who was a congressman. Seo claims that he and Choi agreed to shorten the name of the art from ‘hapki yu kwon sool’ to ‘hapkido’ in 1959.

Chinil Chang

A direct private student of Doju Choi, Chinil Chang inherited the title of Doju in Choi’s personal and complete system of Hapkido on January 15, 1985 becoming the second direct lineage Grandmaster. A large inauguration ceremony followed in April 1985 covered by Korea Sports News and MBC Korean Television to document the event that was attended by Doju Choi, Doju Chang and Doju Choi’s son the late Choi Bok-Yeol. Doju Chang is the only Hapkido master ever awarded the 10th dan and the Doju title from Doju Choi. Doju Choi left the full documents and recordings of the system to Doju Chang who continued to research and document the full history and development of Hapkido.

Doju Chang continues to teach in New York City after decades of maintaining a commercial school as well as a stint teaching Hapkido at the United Nations. He currently teaches a small group of students dedicated to the preservation of Hapkido in NYC. Many detractors have spread conjecture about him and his mission. One lineage has created further controversy by stating Doju Choi passed the system to his only son Choi Bok-Yeol which is incorrect and horribly misleading as well as insulting to the legacy and wishes of Doju Choi. Black Belt Magazine respecting Doju Chinil Chang as the second direct lineage successor asked him to write a brief obituary of Doju Choi that appeared in Black Belt magazine in the April 1987 issue Vol 25 Number 4.

Ji Han-Jae

Ji Han-Jae was undoubtedly the prime mover in the art of Korean hapkido. It is due to his physical skills, technical contributions, promotional efforts and political connections as head hapkido instructor to the presidential body guard under Korean President Park Jeong-Hee that hapkido became popularized, first within Korea and then internationally.

Whereas the martial art education of Choi Yong-Sool is unconfirmed, the martial art history of Ji Han-Jae’s core training is somewhat easier to trace. Ji was an early student (Dan #14) of Choi. He details that prior to opening his martial art school in Seoul, the Sung Moo Kwan he also studied from a man known as Taoist Lee and an old woman he knew as ‘Grandma’.

As a teacher of hapkido, Ji incorporated traditional Korean kicking techniques (from Taoist Lee and the art Sam Rang Do Tek Gi) and punching techniques into the system and gave the resulting synthesis the name hapkido in 1957. Hapkido is the Korean pronunciation of (Japanese) aikido and is sometimes erroneously referred to as its Korean cousin.

Although a founding member of the Dae Han Ki Do Hwe (Korea Kido Association) in 1963 with Choi Yong-Sool as titular Chairman and Kim Jeong-Yoon as Secretary General and Head Instructor for the association Ji found himself not able to exert as much control over the organization as he might have wished. To this end and with the support of the Head of the Security Forces, Park Jong-Kyu, Ji founded the very successful Korea Hapkido Association (Dae Han Hapkido Hyub Hwe).

Later when this organization combined with the organizations founded by Myung Jae-Nam (Korea Hapki Association/Hangook Hapki Hwe) and Kim Moo-Hong (Korean Hapkido Association/Hangook Hapkido Hyub Hwe) in 1973 they became the very extensive and influential organization known as the Republic of Korea Hapkido Association (Dae Han Min Gook Hapkido Hyub Hwe). In 1984, Ji moved first to Germany and then to the United States and founded Sin Moo Hapkido which incorporates philosophical tenets, a specific series of techniques (including kicks) and healing techniques into the art. Two of Ji Han-Jae’s notable students in Korea were Kwon Tae-Man, Myung Jae-Nam. JI can be seen in the films Lady Kung-fu and Game of Death in which he takes part in a long fight scene against Bruce Lee.

Prior to the death of Choi Yong-Sool in 1986, Ji came forward with the assertion that it was he who founded the Korean art of hapkido, asserting that Choi Yong-Sool taught only yawara based skills and that it was he who added much of the kicking, and weapon techniques we now associate with modern hapkido.[13] He also asserts that it was he that first used the term ‘hapkido’ to refer to the art. While both claims are contested by some of the other senior teachers of the art,[14] what is not contested is the undeniably huge contributions made by Ji to the art, its systematization and its promotion worldwide.

Kim Moo-Hong

A student from the Choi and Seo’s Daehan Hapki Yu Kwon Sool Dojang, was Kim Moo-Hong who later taught at Seo’s Joong Ang dojang in Daegu. Seo, who promoted Kim to 4th degree, credits Kim with the development of many kicks which are still used in hapkido today. Kim apparently took the concepts from very basic kicks he had learned from Choi and went to a temple to work on developing them to a much greater degree. Later, in 1961, Kim travelled to Seoul and while staying at Ji Han-Jae’s Sung Moo Kwan dojang they finalized the kicking curriculum. Kim went on to found his Shin Moo Kwan dojang in the Jongmyo section of Seoul, also in 1961. Won Kwang-Hwa also served as an instructor at this dojang. Kim’s notable students were Lee Han-Cheol Kim Woo-Tak (who founded the Kuk Sool Kwan Hapkido dojang), Huh Il-Woong Lee Joo-Bang, (who founded modern Hwa Rang Do), Na Han-Dong Shin Dong-Ki and Seo In-Hyuk (who founded Kuk Sool Won).

Originally a member of the Korea Kido Association, the organization sent Kim to teach hapkido in the United States in 1969. Upon returning to Korea in 1970, Kim looked to Ji Han-Jae’s move to set up his own organization and with the encouragement of his students followed suit and founded the Korean Hapkido Association (Hangook Hapkido Association) in 1971. Later he combined this organization with the groups led by Ji Han-Jae and Myung Jae-Nam to form the Republic of Korea Hapkido Association.[10]

Myung Jae-Nam

In 1972, Myung Jae-Nam was one of the original members of the Korea Hapkido Association (Dae Han Hapkido Hyub Hwe) which was formed in 1965 at the request of the South Korean President Park Jeong-Hee. The Korea Hapkido Association was formed with the assistance of Mr. Park Jong Kyu, who was the head of the Presidential Protective Forces and one of the most powerful men in Korea at the time. Later Myung Jae-Nam broke away from all the other organizations and started to focus on promoting a new style, hankido. Until his death in 1999 he was the leader of the International Hapkido Federation.

Lim, Hyun Soo

Lim, Hyun Soo is a long time disciple of Dojunim, Choi Yong Sul. Lim created the Jung Ki Kwan on October 24, 1974. In 1965 he visited Founder Choi, Yong Sul and has his first meeting with Hapkido. At first he was taught by Master Kim, Yeung Jae, Founder Choi’s pupil. He was then taught by Founder Choi, Yong Sul and became his pupil until 1981. During his time with the founder, he endured strict and intense training. Knowing Hapkido’s true value and meaning during his special training period with the founder, he opened the Jung Ki Kwan. In 1976 Founder Choi closed his place, joined the Jung Ki Kwan, and devoted his energy to it for the rest of his life. Grand Master Lim continues to teach Choi, Yong Sul’s style of original Hapkido to this day. His dojang is in Daegu City, South Korea. Grand Master Lim is also a top swordsman in Korea and created a sword system known as Chung Suk Kuhapdo. Grand Master Lim’s Jung Ki Kwan is an international organization that is committed to teaching Hapkido as taught to Grand Master Lim from Dojunim Choi, Yong Sul.

Principles On the “hard-soft” scale of martial arts, hapkido stands somewhere in the middle, employing “soft” techniques similar to jujutsu and aikido as well as “hard” techniques reminiscent of taekwondo and tang soo do. Even the “hard” techniques, though, emphasize circular rather than linear movements. Hapkido is an eclectic, hybrid martial art, and different hapkido schools emphasize different techniques. However, some core techniques are found in each school (kwan), and all techniques should follow the three principles of hapkido:

Non-resistance (Hwa – Harmony)
Circle principle (Won – Circle)
The Water/Flexible principle (Yu – Flow)

Hwa, or non-resistance, is simply the act of remaining relaxed and not directly opposing an opponent’s strength. For example, if an opponent were to push against a hapkido student’s chest, rather than resist and push back, the hapkido student would avoid a direct confrontation by moving in the same direction as the push and utilizing the opponent’s forward momentum to throw him.

Won, the circular principle, is a way to gain momentum for executing the techniques in a natural and free-flowing manner. If an opponent attacks in linear motion, as in a punch or knife thrust, the hapkido student would redirect the opponent’s force by leading the attack in a circular pattern, thereby adding the attacker’s power to his own. Once he has redirected the power, the hapkido student can execute any of a variety of techniques to incapacitate his attacker. The hapkido practitioner learns to view an attacker as an “energy entity” rather than as a physical entity. The bigger the person is, the more energy a person has, the better it is for the hapkido student.

Yu, the water principle, can be thought of as the soft, adaptable strength of water. Hapkido is “soft” in that it does not rely on physical force alone, much like water is soft to touch. It is adaptable in that a hapkido master will attempt to deflect an opponent’s strike, in a way that is similar to free-flowing water being divided around a stone only to return and envelop it.


Hapkido seeks to be a fully comprehensive fighting style and as such tries to avoid narrow specialization in any particular type of technique or range of fighting. It maintains a wide range of tactics for striking, standing joint locks, throwing techniques (both pure and joint manipulating throws) and pinning techniques. Some styles also incorporate tactics for ground fighting although these tactics generally tend to be focused upon escaping and regaining footing or controlling, striking, and finishing a downed opponent, rather than lengthy wrestling or submission grappling engagements.

The Korean term for technique is sool. As terminology varies between schools, some refer to defensive manoeuvres as soolgi (loosely translated as “technique-ing”), while hoshinsool meaning “self-defense”) is preferred by others.

Proper hapkido tactics include using footwork and a series of kicks and hand strikes to bridge the distance with an opponent. Then to immediately control the balance of the opponent (typically by manipulating the head and neck), for a take down or to isolate a wrist or arm and apply a joint twisting throw, depending upon the situation; Hapkido is a comprehensive system and once the opponent’s balance has been taken, there are a myriad of techniques to disable and subdue the opponent. Hapkido makes use of pressure points known in Korean as hyeol which are also used in traditional Asian medical practices such as acupuncture point. These pressure points are either struck to produce unconsciousness or manipulated to create pain allowing one to more easily upset the balance of one’s opponent prior to a throw or joint manipulation.

Hapkido emphasizes self-defence over sport fighting and as such employs the use of weapons, including environmental weapons of opportunity, in addition to empty hand techniques. Some schools also teach hyeong,poomse, the Korean equivalent of what is commonly known as “kata” in Japanese martial arts. A. flying side kick. The wide variety of kicks in hapkido make it distinctly Korean. Taekwondo kicks appear to be similar to many of the kicks found in hapkido, though again circular motion is emphasized. Also, in contrast to most modern taekwondo styles, hapkido utilises a wide variety of low (below the waist), hooking or sweeping kicks, with one of the most distinctive being the low spinning (sweeping) heel kick.

Hapkido’s method of delivery tends toward greater weight commitment to the strikes and less concern for quick retraction of the kicking leg. Traditionally, Choi Yong-Sool’s yu kwon sool kicking techniques were only to the lower body, but most derived varieties of hapkido, probably as a direct influence from other Korean arts, also include high kicks and jumping kicks. At the more advanced levels of Hapkido the practitioner learns “blade kicks” which utilize sweeping blade strikes of the inner and outer foot against pressure points of the body.

Two of the earliest innovators in this regard were Ji Han-Jae and Kim Moo-Hong, both of whom were exposed to what were thought to be indigenous Korean kicking arts. They combined these forms together with the yu sool concepts for striking taught to them by Choi and during a period of 8 months training together in 1961 finalized the kicking curriculum which would be used by the Korea Hapkido Association (Daehan Hapkido Hyub Hwe) for many years to come.[10] Other influences also were exerted on the kicking techniques of important hapkido teachers. Kwon Tae-Man initially studied under Ji Han-Jae before immigrating to southern California in the United States. Han Bong-soo studied under Gwonbeop and Shotokan karate from Yoon Byung-In whose students were influential in the later forming of kong soo do and taekwondo styles, specifically the Chang Moo Kwan and Jidokwan. He, like Kim Moo-Hong, also trained briefly in the Korean art of taekkyeon under Lee Bok-Yong. Many other teachers like Myung Kwang-Sik, Jeong Kee-Tae Lim Hyun-Soo and many others trained in tang soo do and kong soo do, Shotokan and Shotokan karate based systems which predated and influenced the forming of first tae soo do and later modern taekwondo styles.

Kim Sang-Kook states that while many of the original yu kwon sool students were exposed to many different contemporary Korean arts the Chung Do Kwan was of particular importance in the transition from the original jujutsu based form to what we know today as modern hapkido.

Most forms of hapkido include a series of double kicks used to promote balance, coordination and muscular control.

Front Kick — Side Kick
Front Kick – Back Kick (“Turning back-Side Kick”)
Front Kick – Roundhouse Kick
Front Heel/Hook Kick — Roundhouse Kick
Inverted Low Side Kick – High Side Kick
Inside Crescent Kick — Outside Crescent Kick (or Heeldown/Axe Kick for both)
Inside Crescent Kick – Side Kick (or Inside Heeldown Kick and Side Kick)
Outside Heel-down Kick — Roundhouse Kick
Ankle Scoop Kick — Side Kick
Cover Kick – Front Kick
Inside Heel Hooking-the-Thigh Kick—Front Kick
High Spinning Heel Kick — Low Spinning Heel Kick
Inside Footblade Kick – Outside Footblade Kick
Outside Heeldown Kick – Roundhouse

After these kicks are mastered using one foot kick the student moves on to jumping versions using alternate kicking legs.

Kim Chong Sung (Jang Mu Won Hapkido Founder), was one of the oldest living active hapkido instructors, maintains that the source of these kicking methods is from the indigenous Korean kicking art of taekkyeon. Others feel that these kicks are more representative of kong soo do and tang soo do styles which emerged from an adaptation of Japanese karate forms.

Hand strikes

Like most martial arts, hapkido employs a great number of punches and hand strikes, as well as elbow strikes. A distinctive example of hapkido hand techniques is “live hand” strike that focuses energy to the baek hwa hyul in the hand, producing energy strikes and internal strikes. The hand strikes are often used to weaken the opponent before joint locking and throwing, and also as finishing techniques.

Hand striking in hapkido (unless in competition) is not restricted to punches and open hand striking; some significance is given to striking with fingernails at the throat and eyes; pulling at the opponent’s genitals is also covered in conventional training.

In order to recall hand strikes more easily in an emotionally charged situation, beginning students are taught conventional, effective patterns of blocks and counterattacks called makko chigi , which progress to more complex techniques as the student becomes familiar with them.

Joint manipulation techniques The straight armlock is an example of a very effective elbowlock. Much of hapkido’s joint control techniques are said to be derived largely from Dait?-ry? Aiki-j?jutsu. They are taught similarly to aikido techniques, but in general the circles are smaller and the techniques are applied in a more linear fashion. Hapkido’s joint manipulation techniques attack both large joints (such as the elbow, shoulder, neck, back, knee, and hip) and small joints (such as wrists, fingers, ankles, toes, jaw).

Most techniques involve applying force in the direction that a joint moves naturally and then forcing it to overextend or by forcing a joint to move in a direction that goes against its natural range of motion. These techniques can be used to cause pain and force a submission, to gain control of an opponent for a ‘come along’ techniques (as is often employed in law enforcement), to assist in a hard or gentle throw or to cause the dislocation or breaking of the joint. Hapkido differs from some post war styles of aikido in its preservation of a great many techniques which are applied against the joint that were deemed by some to be inconsistent with aikido’s more pacificistic philosophy.

Wristlocks Hapkido is well known for its use of a wide variety of wristlocks. These techniques are believed to have been derived from Daito-ryu Aiki-jjjutsu although their manner of performance is not always identical to that of the parent art. Still many of the techniques found in hapkido are quite similar to those of Daito-ryu and aikido which was derived from that art. Examples of such techniques are: the supinating wristlock, pronating wristlock, internal rotational wristlock, and the utilization of pressure points on the wrist. These techniques are common to many forms of Japanese jujutsu, Chinese chin na, and even “catch as catch can” wrestling.

Elbow locks

Although well known for its wristlocking techniques hapkido has an equally wide array of tactics which centre upon the manipulation of the elbow joint (see armlock). The first self defense technique typically taught in many hapkido schools is the knifehand elbow press. This technique is thought to be derived from Daito-ryu’s ippondori, a method of disarming and destroying the elbow joint of a sword wielding opponent. Hapkido typically introduces this technique off a wrist grabbing attack where the defender makes a circular movement with his hands to free themselves from their opponent’s grasp and applies a pronating wristlock while cutting down upon the elbow joint with their forearm, taking their opponent down to the ground where an elbow lock is applied with one’s hand or knee to immobilize the attacker in a pin. Interestingly both Daito-ryu and aikido prefer to use hand pressure on the elbow throughout the technique rather than using the forearm as a “hand blade, cutting into the elbow joint, in the hapkido manner.

Throwing techniques

Hapkido students practice throws and joint manipulation in a dojang. In addition to throws which are achieved by unbalancing one’s opponent through the twisting of their joints, hapkido also contains techniques of pure throwing which do not require the assistance of jointlocks. Some of these techniques are found within Daito-ryu but a great many of them are held in common with judo. Many of early practitioners of hapkido had extensive judo backgrounds including Choi Yong-Sool’s first student Seo Bok-Seob. Judo techniques were introduced in the early years of the 20th century in Korea during the Japanese colonial period. Judo/Yudo tactics employ extensive use of throws, various chokes, hold downs, joint locks, and other grappling techniques used to control the opponent on the ground. It is believed that these techniques were absorbed into the hapkido curriculum from judo as there were a great many judo practitioners in Korea at that time and its tactics were commonly employed in the fighting of the period. Indeed, there also exists a portion of the hapkido curriculum which consists of techniques specifically designed to thwart judo style attacks.


As a hapkido student advances through the various belt levels (essentially the same as other Korean arts, e.g. taekwondo), he or she learns how to employ and defend against various weapons. The first weapon encountered is most often a knife (kal). Another initial weapon used to teach both control and the basic precepts of utilizing a weapon with Hapkido techniques is the Jung Bong (police baton sized stick), techniques and defences against the 35 cm short stick (dahn bohng), a walking stick or cane (ji-pang-ee), and a rope are introduced in hapkido training. Many hapkido organizations may also include other weapons training such as a sword (gum), long staff (jahng bohng), middle length staff, nunchaku (ssahng jol gohn), war-fan or other types of bladed weapons such as twin short swords. Some schools even teach students to defend against firearms. Hapkido weapons techniques are often incorporated into many military and law enforcement training curricula.


Hapkido training takes place in a dojang. While training methods vary, a typical training session will contain technique practice (striking techniques as well as defensive throws and grappling), break falling (nakbop), sparring, meditation and exercises to develop body strength, also called internal energy (ki).

Although hapkido is in some respects a “soft” art, training can be very vigorous and demanding. The practitioner could benefit in training by becoming lean and muscular. However, strength is not a prerequisite of hapkido; what strength and fitness is necessary to perform the techniques develops naturally as a result of training.